Verb Tense Overview with Examples
Verb Tense Tutorials

 

 

 

FUTURE SIMPLE

If you are having problems, I will help you study English.
I am going to study English next year.

 

FUTURE CONTINUOUS

 I will be studying English when you arrive tonight. 
I am going to be studying English when you arrive tonight.

 

FUTURE PERFECT

 I will have studied every tense by the time I finish this course. 
I am going to have studied every tense by the time I finish this course.

 

FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS

 I will have been studying English for over two hours by the time you arrive. 

 

PRESENT SIMPLE

I study English every day.  

 

 

 

PRESENT CONTINUOUS

I am studying English now.  

 

 

 

 

PRESENT PERFECT

I have studied English in several different countries.   

 

 

 

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS

 I have been studying English for five years.

PAST SIMPLE

 Two years ago, I studied English in England.

 

 

PAST CONTINUOUS

I was studying English when you called yesterday.

 

 

 

PAST PERFECT

 I had studied a little English before I moved to the U.S. 

 

 

 

PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS

 I had been studying English for five years before I moved to the U.S.  

Irregular Verb Dictionary 

 

Irregular Verb Dictionary for English learners contains over 370 irregular verbs used in modern English. Alternate forms are separated by /. The first form listed is the most commonly used. 

 

 

Infinitive        Past Indefinite        Participle II        Russian translation   

     
   arise        arose        arisen        возникать        
   awake        awoke, awaked        awoken, awoke, awaked        пробуждать        
   be        was, were        been        быть        
   bear        bore        borne        нести        
   beat        beat        beaten        бить        
   become        became        become        становиться       
   begin        began        begun        начинать       
   bend        bent        bent        сгибать       
   bid        bid        bid        предлагать цену      
   bind        bound        bound        связывать       
   bite        bit        bitten        кусать        
   bleed        bled        bled        истекать кровью      
   blow        blew        blown        дуть        
   break        broke        broken        ломать       
   breed        bred        bred        размножаться        
   bring        brought        brought        приносить        
   broadcast        broadcast        broadcast        распространять       
   build        built        built        строить        
   burn        burnt        burnt        гореть      
   burst        burst        burst        взрываться       
   bust        bust        bust        сломать        
   buy        bought        bought        покупать      
   cast        cast        cast        бросать       
   catch        caught        caught        ловить, поймать        
   choose        chose        chosen        выбирать        
   cling        clung        clung        цеплять       
   come        came        come        приходить        
   cost        cost        cost        стоить        
   creep        crept        crept        ползать       
   cut        cut        cut        резать      
   deal        dealt        dealt        раздавать    
   dig        dug        dug        копать       
   dive        dived, dove        dived        нырять      
   do        did        done        делать      
  
   draw        drew        drawn        рисовать      
   dream        dreamed, dreamt        dreamed, dreamt        видеть сны      
   drink        drank        drunk        пить       
   drive        drove        driven        везти        
   dwell        dwelt, dwelled        dwelt, dwelled        жить, обитать    
   eat        ate         eaten        есть     
   fall        fell        fallen        падать      
   feed        fed        fed        кормить       
   feel        felt        felt        чувствовать        
   fight        fought        fought        бороться       
   find        found        found        находить       
   fit        fit        fit        подходить (по размеру)      
   flee        fled        fled        убегать       
   fling        flung        flung        кидаться    
   fly        flew        flown        летать       
   forbid        forbade        forbidden        запрещать     
   forego        forewent        foregone        предшествовать       
   foresee        foresaw        foreseen        предвидеть        
   foretell        foretold        foretold        предсказывать        
   forget        forgot        forgotten        забывать      
   forgive        forgave         forgiven        прощать        
   forsake         forsook        forsaken        оставлять       
   freeze        froze        frozen        замерзать       
   get        got        got        получать      
   give        gave        given        давать       
   go        went        gone        идти      
   grow        grew        grown        расти      
   hang        hung        hung        вешать       
   have        had        had        иметь       
   hear         heard        heard        слышать   
   hew        hewed        hewn        рубить       
   hide        hid        hidden        прятать      
   hit        hit        hit        ударять        
   hold        held        held        держать       
   hurt        hurt        hurt        ранить        
   inlay        inlaid        inlaid        вкладывать        

   keep         kept         kept        держать        
   kneel        knelt        knelt        становиться на колени        
   knit        knitted, knit        knitted, knit        вязать       
   know        knew        known        знать    
   lay        laid        laid        класть      
   lead        led        led        вести      
   lean        leaned, leant        leaned, leant        наклонять     
   leap        leaped, leapt        leaped, leapt        прыгать      
   learn        learned, learnt        learned, learnt        учиться     
   leave        left        left        оставлять       
   lend        lent        lent        давать взаймы      
   let        let        let        позволять       
   lie        lay        lain        лежать        лежати
   light         lit, lighted        lit, lighted        зажигать     
   lose        lost        lost        терять       
   make        made        made        делать     
   mean        meant        meant        значить       
   meet        met        met        встречаться      
   mistake         mistook         mistaken        ошибаться     
   mow        mowed        mowed, mown        косить, жать     
   pay        paid        paid        платить      
   plead        pleaded, pled        pleaded, pled        защищать подсудимого     
   proofread        proofread        proofread        корректировать       
   prove        proved        proven, proved        доказывать      
   put        put        put        класть       
   quit         quit, quitted        quit, quitted        покидать       
   read        read        read        читать      
   rid        rid        rid        освобождать    
   ride        rode        ridden        ехать верхом      
   ring        rang        rung        звонить       
   rise        rose        risen        подниматься      
   run        ran        run        бежать      
   saw        sawed        sawed, sawn        пилить      
   say        said        said        говорить      
   see        saw         seen        видеть      

   seek         sought         sought        искать     
   sell        sold        sold        продавать       
   send        sent        sent        посылать      
   set        set        set        сажать        
   sew        sewed        sewn, sewed        зашивать     
   shake        shook         shaken        трясти       
   shave        shaved        shaved, shaven        бриться      
   shear         sheared        sheared, shorn        стричь    
   shed        shed        shed        ронять      
   shine        shined, shone        shined, shone        светить      
   shoot        shot        shot        стрелять     
   show        showed        shown, showed        показывать       
   shrink        shrank, shrunk        shrunk        уменьшать      
   shut        shut        shut        закрывать     
   sing        sang        sung        петь       
   sink        sank, sunk        sunk        опускать     
   sit        sat        sat        сидеть      
   slay        slew, slayed        slain, slayed        убивать      
   sleep        slept        slept        спать  
   slide        slid        slid        скользить     
   sling        slung        slung        швырять      
   slink        slinked, slunk        slinked, slunk        красться       
   smell        smelled, smelt        smelled, smelt        пахнуть     
   sneak        sneaked, snuck        sneaked, snuck        подкрадываться        
   sow         sowed        sown, sowed        сеять      
   speak        spoke         spoken        говорить, разговаривать      
   speed        sped, speeded        sped, speeded        спешить     
   spell        spelled, spelt        spelled, spelt        писать     
   spend         spent         spent        тратить     
   spill        spilled, spilt        spilled, spilt        проливать      
   split        split        split        расщепляться      
   spoil        spoiled, spoilt        spoiled, spoilt        наносить ущерб       
   spread        spread        spread        раскидывать      
   spring        sprang, sprung        sprung        прыгать     
   stand        stood        stood        стоять    

   steal        stole        stolen        грабить      
   stick         stuck         stuck        пронзать       
   sting        stung        stung        жалить       
   stink        stunk, stank        stunk        быть плохим       
   strew        strewed        strewn, strewed        разбрасывать     
   stride         strode         stridden        шагать      
   strike        struck        struck, stricken        ударять    
   string        strung        strung        завязывать        
   strive        strove, strived        striven, strived        стараться      
   sublet        sublet        sublet        передавать в субаренду      
   swear        swore         sworn        клясться    
   sweat        sweat, sweated        sweat, sweated        потеть        
   sweep         swept         swept        подметать       
   swell         swelled        swollen, swelled        надуваться    
   swim         swam        swum        плавать       
   swing        swung        swung        качаться     
   take         took        taken        брать  
   teach        taught        taught        обучать       
   tear        tore        torn        рвать      
   tell        told        told        рассказывать      
   think        thought        thought        думать     
   throw         threw         thrown        бросать     
   thrust        thrust        thrust        колоть      
   tread        trod        trodden, trod        идти    
   understand        understood        understood        понимать     
   upset        upset        upset        срывать (запланированное)      
   wake        woke, waked        woken, waked        просыпаться    
   wear         wore        worn        носить       
   weave        wove, weaved        woven, weaved        ткать       
   wed        wed, wedded        wed, wedded        жениться, выходить замуж        
   weep        wept        wept        рыдать       
   wet        wet, wetted        wet, wetted        увлажнять    
   win        won        won        побеждать      
   wring        wrung        wrung        скручивать      
   write        wrote         written        писать       



 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Phrasal Verb Dictionary

What are phrasal verbs?
1.  A phrasal verb is a verb plus a preposition or adverb which creates a meaning different from the original verb.

Example:
I ran into my teacher at the movies last night. run + into = meet
He ran away when he was 15. run + away = leave home
2. Some phrasal verbs are intransitive. An intransitive verb cannot be followed by an object.

Example:
He suddenly showed up. "show up" cannot take an object
3. Some phrasal verbs are transitive. A transitive verb can be followed by an object.

Example:
I made up the story. "story" is the object of "make up"
4. Some transitive phrasal verbs are separable. The object is placed between the verb and the preposition. In this Phrasal Verb Dictionary, separable phrasal verbs are marked by placing a * between the verb and the preposition / adverb.

Example:
I talked my mother into letting me borrow the car.
She looked the phone number up.
5. Some transitive phrasal verbs are inseparable. The object is placed after the preposition. In this Phrasal Verb Dictionary, inseparable phrasal verbs are marked by placing a + after the preposition / adverb.

Example:
I ran into an old friend yesterday.
They are looking into the problem.
6. Some transitive phrasal verbs can take an object in both places. In this Phrasal Verb Dictionary, such phrasal verbs are marked with both * and + .

Example:
I looked the number up in the phone book.
I looked up the number in the phone book.
7. WARNING! Although many phrasal verbs can take an object in both places, you must put the object between the verb and the preposition if the object is a pronoun.

Example:
I looked the number up in the phone book.
I looked up the number in the phone book.
I looked it up in the phone book. correct
I looked up it in the phone book. incorrect


Phrasal Verb    Definition    Example
act up    behave or function improperly    I think I need to take my car to the mechanic because it's acting up again.
add * up +    calculate a sum    I added up the receipts and it totaled $135.46.
add up to +    equal an amount    The total expenses added up to $325.00. 
add up    make sense    Her story doesn't add up. I think she is lying.
ask * out +    invite on a date    I can't believe that Joe finally asked me out on a date!
ask * over +    invite to one's home    Why don't we ask the Johnsons over for dinner?

back down    stop defending your opinion in a debate    Jane never backs down. She always wins arguments.
back out    not keep (a promise, agreement,deal)    Sam backed out at the last second.
back out of +    not keep (a promise, agreement, deal)    Sam backed out of the agreement at the last second.
back * up +    give support    You need examples to back up your opinion. 
back up    move backwards, reverse    Could you back up a little so I can open this drawer.
bawl * out     criticize, reprimand (inf.)    She bawled him out for arriving late.
bear down on +    bite    The soldier had to bear down on the leather strap while the doctor removed a bullet from the soldier's arm.
bear down on +    take strong measures against    The U.S.A. is bearing down on drug traffickers.
bear on +    have to do with    This information may bear on this case.
bear up    withstand    I didn't think he would bear up so well in that situation.
bear up under +    withstand    How did he bear up under such extreme pressure.
bear with +    be patient    Please bear with me while I fill out the paperwork.
blow in    visit unexpectedly (inf.)    My cousin blew in unexpectedly with his entire family.
blow over    pass without creating a problem    All this negative publicity will blow over in a couple of weeks.
blow * up +    make explode;destroy using explosives    The terrorists blew the bridge up.
blow up    explode    The bomb blew up before they could defuse it.
blow up    suddenly become very angry    When Joan heard the news, she blew up and rushed out of the room.
break * down +    analyze in detail    We need to break this problem down in order to solve.
break down    stop working properly    The truck broke down in the desert.
break down    become mentally ill    She broke down after her husband died.
break * in +    wear or use something new until it is comfortable    I need to break these shoes in before I go hiking.
break in    interrupt    While we were discussing the situation, Terri broke in to give her opinion.
break in    enter a place unlawfully    The burglar broke in between midnight and 3 AM.
break in on +    interrupt (a conversation)    Jane broke in on the conversation and told us to get back to work.
break into +    enter a house unlawfully    The burglar broke into the house between midnight and 3 AM.
break into +    interrupt (a conversation)    Jane broke into the conversation and told us what she knew.
break * off +    end something    Sally broke her engagement to John off.
break out    appear violently    Violent protests broke out in response to the military coup.
break out +    use something extravagant for celebration    He broke out the champagne to celebrate his promotion.
break out  of +    escape    The murderer broke out of the prison.
break * up +    break into pieces    I broke the cracker up into pieces and put it in the soup.
break * up +    disperse (a crowd), stop (a fight)    The police broke the demonstration up before it got out of control.
break up    end a relationship    Sam and Diane broke up again. What a rocky relationship.
bring * about +    cause to happen    Democracy brought about great change in the lives of the people.
bring * along +    bring with    When we go to the forest, bring your wildlife guide along.
bring * around    change someone's mind, convince someone    She doesn't want to go, but we'll eventually bring her around.
bring * away    learn or gain (from an experience)    My trip across the Sahara was difficult, but I brought a new appreciation for life away from the experience.
bring * off +    succeed at something difficult or unexpected    You robbed the bank! I can't believe you brought that off.
bring * on +    cause something    I can't believe she got so angry. What brought that on?
bring * out +    highlight, stress    Your new shirt brings out the color of your eyes.
bring * over +    bring to someone's house    When you visit me, why don't you bring over your son.
bring * to    revive consciousness    We used smelling salts to bring her to after she fainted.
bring * up +    mention    I didn't want to bring up the fact that she was unemployed.
bring * up +    raise ( a child)    Sam was brought up in South Carolina.
brush * off +    ignore something or someone (inf.)    Mary brushed her ex-boyfriend off at the party.
burn * down +    destroy by setting fire to    The children burned the house down while playing with matches.
burn down    burn until completely gone (building)    Two buildings burnt down in the fire.
burn up    be hot    I am burning up in here - open the window.
burn up     consume by fire    The papers were burned up in the fire.
burn * up +    destroy by fire    He burnt up the files.
buy * out +    buy the shares of a company or the shares the other person owns of a business    Pacific Inc. was bought out by a company from Oregon. 
buy * up +    purchase the entire supply of something    We bought up all the beer in the store.

call for +    require (as in a recipe)    This recipe calls for milk, not water.
call * off +    cancel something    They called the picnic off because of the rain.
call * off +    order to stop (an invasion, guard dogs)    He called off the dogs when he saw it was his neighbor.
call on +    visit    Mark called on Naomi while he was in town.
call on +    invite someone to speak in a meeting or a classroom    Professor Tanzer called on Tim to answer the question. 
call * up +    telephone    I called Sam up to see if he wanted to go to the movies.
calm * down +    make someone relax    You can calm the baby down by rocking her gently.
care for +    nurse someone or something    He cared for the bird until its wing healed.
care for +    like someone or something    I don't care for sour cream on my potato.
carry on +    continue (a conversation, a game)    Please, carry on. I didn't mean to interrupt you.
carry on about +    continue in an annoying way     He kept carrying on about how much money he makes.
carry on with +    continue    I want you to carry on with the project while I am out of town.
carry * out +    complete and/or accomplish something    The secret agent carried out his orders exactly as planned. 
carry * over +    continue on a subsequent day, page, etc.    The meeting carried over into lunch time.
catch on    slowly start to understand (inf.)    He caught on after a few minutes.
catch up    make up for lost time    I will never catch up. I am too behind in my work.
catch up with +    speed up to be at the same place as a person or thing in front of you    I had to run to catch up with the others.
catch up on +    become up-to-date    I need to catch up on world events. I haven't seen the news in ages.
check back    return to see if everything is OK    We will check back tomorrow to make sure the project is finished.
check by +    go to a place to see if everything is OK    We need to check by the office to see if the documents are ready.
check for +    try to find    They checked for termites before they bought the house.
check in    enter a hospital, hotel etc.    They need to check in before noon.
check into +    enter a hospital, hotel etc.    They checked into the hotel at 11:00 AM.
check into +    investigate, look for (often through a service)    We are checking into discount flights to London.
check * off +    make a mark next to (an item on a list)    Check each name off the list.
check on +    make sure something is OK    Let's check on the baby again before we go to sleep.
check * out +    investigate, take a look at    He checked out the new restaurant down the street.
check out    leave a hotel, hospital    It's already eleven. We need to check out.
check out of +    leave a hotel, hospital    We checked out of the hotel before ten.
check * over +    closely examine the condition of something    He checked over the old car to see if it was worth buying.
check up on +    investigate someone or something    The police are checking up on the bomb threats.
check * through    send luggage through (to a destination)    Your luggage will be checked through to Paris.
check with +    ask a person for confirmation    He needs to check with his parents before he goes.
cheer * up    make someone feel cheerful    The party really cheered me up.
cheer up    become cheerful    Cheer up. Everything will be all right.
chew * up +    chew into small pieces    The dog chewed up my shoe.
chop * down +    fell/cut ( a tree)    The lumberjack chopped the tree down.
chop * up +    chop/cut into small bits    He chopped the meat up into little pieces.
clean * up +    tidy    Susan cleaned the mess up before she left.
clear out    leave ( inf.)    Everybody clear out! We're closed.
clear * up +    tidy    Susan cleared up the mess before she left.
close * down +    close a place permanently    The corner market closed down because they didn't have many customers.
close down    close permanently    The bar was closed down because they served alcohol to minors.
close in on +    approach and threaten    The rebels were closing in on the capital, so the government called in the army.
close * up +    close temporarily    They are closing the ski resort up for the summer.
close up    close temporarily    The ski resort is closing up for the summer.
come about    occur / happen    How did you idea for the book come about.
come across +    discover by accident    They came across some lost Mayan ruins in the jungle.
come across +    initially seem or have the appearance    He comes across as rather rude, but he isn't.
come along    accompany someone    If you want, you can come along.
come along with +    accompany    Sam came along with us to the beach.
come along    progress    How's the research paper coming along.
come along with +    progress    How are you coming along with the research paper.
come away    leave a place with a particular feeling or impression    I came away from the meeting feeling like the presentation was a success.
come back    return    What time are you coming back?
come by +     get, receive    How did you come by that new Mercedes?
come by    visit a person at their house    I'll come by later this afternoon.
come down with +    become sick with    He came down with the flu.
come into +    inherit    He came into a large sum of money when his aunt died.
come off +    fall off, break off    The handle came off the suitcase when I picked it up.
come out    appear    I didn't see the car at first. It came out of nowhere.
come out    reveal you are homosexual    Sam finally came out last month.
come out    turn out, end up    The pictures came out great.
come out with +    produce and distribute a product    Microsoft is coming out with a new video game system next month.
come over    visit someone at their house    Why don't you come over after work for dinner.
come to    regain consciousness    Don't worry! She faints all the time. She always comes to after a few minutes.
come through    do what is needed or expected    Terry really came through for us in the end.
come up to +    approach; to equal    The job offer didn't come up to her expectations.
come up with +    produce or create (an idea, a plan)    She came up with a great proposal for the new advertising campaign.
come with +    include (an accessory)    The computer system doesn't come with a printer.
count * in +    include    Did you count expenses in?
count on +    depend/rely on    You can really count on Sarah.
count * out +    exclude    You can count James out. He hates playing poker.
count * up +    add    Count the change up and see how much we have.
crack down on +    become tougher on, better enforce laws on    The police have been cracking down on drunk driving.
crack up    laugh uncontrollably, laugh a lot    When I told the joke, they all cracked up.
crack up at +    laugh uncontrollably about, laugh a lot about    I cracked up at his joke.
cross * out +    draw a line through something, eliminate    Why did you cross my name out on the list?
cut down    decrease the amount of    You eat too much fat. You need to cut down. 
cut down on +    decrease the amount of    You need to cut down on your fat intake.
cut in    interrupt    She suddenly cut in and delivered the news
cut in on +    interrupt    She cut in on the conversation and delivered the news.
cut * off    interrupt someone while they were speaking    She cut him off before he said something he would regret later. 
cut * off +    sever ( with a knife)    His finger was accidentally cut off in an industrial accident.
cut * out +    remove    He cut the bone out of the steak.
cut * out    stop an action    Cut it out! You're bothering me.
cut * up +    cut into small pieces    He cut the beef up and put the pieces in the soup.

die away    diminish in intensity    The applause died away after 5 minutes.
die down    diminish in intensity    The controversy about the president's affair finally died down.
die off/out    become extinct    Whales are in danger of dying off.
disagree with +    cause to feel sick due to food or drink    Spicy food disagrees with me.
do away with +    abolish    Some Americans want to do away with the death penalty.
do * over +    repeat    You made many mistakes, so I want you to do the report over.
do without +    manage without something one wants or needs    I couldn't do without a car in California.
draw * up +    create ( a contract)    Let's draw an agreement up before we go any further with this project.
dress * down    reprimand severely    The mother dressed her son down for skipping school.
dress down    dress casually    I am dressing down because we're going to a barbecue by the beach.
dress * up +    decorate    You could dress this house up with some bright colors
dress up    wear elegant clothes    She always dresses up at work.
drive * back +    repulse    The invaders were driven back by the army.
drop in    visit someone unexpectedly    Meg dropped in yesterday after dinner.
drop in on +    visit someone unexpectedly    Let's drop in on Julie since we're driving by her house.
drop out    quit an organized activity    Yuri isn't on the team any more. He dropped out.
drop out of +    quit an organized activity (school)    It's difficult to get a good job if you drop out of high school.
drop over    visit someone casually    Drop over any time you feel like talking.

eat away    gradually destroy, erode    The heavy rains ate away at the sandstone cliffs.
eat * up +    devour    Ken ate the cookies up.
eat in    eat inside the home    We usually eat in instead of going out for dinner.
eat out    eat outside the home    They eat out once a week.

face up to +    acknowledge something difficult or embarrassing    I'll never be able to face up to my colleagues after getting so drunk last night at the work party.
fall back on +    be able to use in case of emergency    Yuki can fall back on her degree in biology if she doesn't succeed in her acting career.
fall behind    go slower than scheduled, lag    Hurry up or you will fall behind!
fall behind in +    go slower than scheduled, lag    Cheryl has missed several days of school and now she is falling behind in her homework.
fall off    decrease    Interest in the project fell off when they realized it wouldn't be profitable.
fall out with +    have an argument with    I had a falling out with my sister last month and we haven't talked to each other since.
fall through    fail to happen    Unfortunately, my trip to Indonesia fell through because I couldn't save enough money.
feel * up +    grope    She sued her boss for sexual harassment after he felt her up.
feel up to +    have the energy to do something    I don't feel up to going out tonight because I had a long day at work.
figure on +    expect    Where do you figure on living when you move to the the U.S.A.?
figure * out +    solve something, understand    I finally figured the joke out. Now I understand why everybody was laughing.
figure * up +    calculate    I need to figure my expenses up before I give you an estimate.
fill * in +    complete     Don't forget to fill in all the blanks on the application.
fill in    substitute    Who is going to fill in while you're gone?
fill in for +    substitute for    Miguel filled in for me at the meeting yesterday because I was sick.
fill * out +    complete (an application)    I filled out an application to rent the apartment last week.
fill out    mature, get breasts    Now that you're filling out honey, we need to get you a bra.
fill * up +    fill to the top    Fill the car up with unleaded gas, please.
find out +    discover    You will never find out all my secrets!
find out    discover    Vicky's parents are going to be so mad when they find out she got a tattoo.
fix * up +    repair, renovate, remodel    My neighbors are fixing their house up.

get * across +    cause to be understood    It's difficult to get humor across in another language.
get ahead    make progress    I can't get ahead even though I work two jobs.
get ahead of +    surpass    You need to work overtime in order to get ahead of schedule.
get along    have a good relationship    Do you and your sister get along?
get along with +    have a good relationship    Giovanna doesn't get along with her two brothers.
get around +    avoid someone or something    Some people get around paying taxes by hiring a good accountant.
get around    go many places    It's easy to get around town with public transportation.
get away    escape    The bank robbers got away.
get away with +    do something against the rules or illegal and not get caught or punished    My sister gets away with everything!
get by    survive without having the things you need or want    I lost my job, so I am having a hard time getting by this year.
get by on +    survive with minimal resources    It's nearly impossible to get by on making minimum wage.
get by with +    manage with    You don't need a computer. You can get by with the typewriter.
get down to +    get serious about a topic    Enough small talk. Let's get down to business.
get in +    enter ( a car, a small boat)    Get in the front seat. You will have more leg room.
get in    enter    Get in. I will give you a ride to school
get * off +    send (a package)    I finally got my sister's birthday present off yesterday.
get * off     remove ( a spider from your shirt)    Can you get this spider off my shirt?
get off +    leave (a bus, plane, train, boat)    We need to get off the bus at the next stop.
get off    leave    It's dangerous to sit on the roof. Get off!
get off    idiomatic phrase - How does he justify saying that?!    Where does he get off saying that?!
get * on    put on (clothes)    You should get your jacket on because it's going to be cold.
get on    enter (a bus, train), mount (a horse, a bike)    The train is leaving. Quick, get on!
get on +    enter (a bus, train), mount ( a horse, a bike)    Get on my bike and I will give you a ride home.
get on    have a good relationship    Natasha doesn't get on with her co-workers.
get on with +    have a good relationship    Do you get on with your neighbors?
get on with +    continue an activity    Now that the police have left, let's get on with the party!
get out of +    exit (a small boat, car, an enclosed area)    I fell into the water when I tried to get out of the canoe.
get over +    recover (a cold, a disease, an ex-boyfriend/ex-girlfriend)     Jennifer still hasn't gotten over her breakup with Peter.
get through +    complete    We will never get through all of these boxes by 9:00 PM.
get through +    penetrate    We need a stronger drill to get through this wall.
get through    penetrate    The door was jammed, so we couldn't get through.
get through (with) +    finish    Have you gotten through with your homework yet?
get through to +    make contact    It's hard to get through to Janet because her telephone line is always busy.
get * up    cause someone to rise (from a sitting position or a lying position)    Ahmed got Abdul up at 5:30 in the morning by turning the music up really loud.
get up    rise (from sitting position or a bed)    What time did you get up this morning?
give * away +    give something without asking for anything in exchange    Why did Nancy give all of her furniture away?
give * away +    betray (a secret)    We are having a surprise party for Susan next Saturday, so don't give our surprise away by acting suspicious.
give * back +    return something you borrowed    When are you going to give that book back to your teacher?
give in    stop trying    Never give in! You can do it!
give  off +    release (a smell, light)    That white flower gives off a beautiful smell.
give * out +    distribute    I earn extra money by giving out brochures on the street.
give out    become very tired (inf.)    I hope this car doesn't give out in the middle of the desert.
give * up +    surrender something    The police told the thief to give his gun up.
give up    surrender    Never give up learning English!
go away    leave    I yelled at the dogs to make them go away.
go back    return    When are you going back to your house?
go by +    go past, go close to, visit quickly    We go by the coffee shop everyday.
go back on +    not keep (one's word, a promise)    Don't trust him. He always goes back on his promises.
go down    decrease    The cost of flight tickets is going down.
go for +    try to achieve    Our team is going for the gold medal in the Olympics.
go for    idiomatic phrase - I am craving pepperoni pizza.    I could go for pepperoni pizza.
go in for +    participate ( inf.)    Are you going to go in for soccer this year at school?
go into +    discuss in detail    I really don't want to go into that now.
go off    explode    The bomb could go off at any moment.
go off    begin, start (used with signals, alarms, warning sounds)    The alarm clock went off at 6:00 AM.
go off    stop (said of a machine)    The DVD player goes off automatically if you are not using it.
go off    become angry    Maria went off last night after I told her about losing her bike.
go on    continue    Please, go on. Don't let me interrupt you.
go on    happen    This place is a mess! What went on here last night?
go on with +    continue ( a plan, a conversation)    I think we should go on with the meeting and stop wasting time.
go out    stop burning ( a fire)    The fire went out after three days.
go out    take part in social activities (usually at night)    They love to go out every Saturday night.
go over +    review    Do you usually go over your notes before class?
go over    be well received, succeed    That didn't go over well.
go through +    examine in detail, study carefully    I need to have my lawyer go through this contract before I sign it.
go through +    endure; experience challenges, difficulties or traumas    She has gone through so much in her life.
go through with +    continue or proceed despite difficulties or fears    I have decided to go through with the operation.
go with +    match (clothing)    That shirt doesn't go with those pants.
go with +    accompany a person    I am going with Alejandro to the party.
go with +    have a boyfriend/girlfriend    I am going with Yuri.
go without +    abstain from something you want or need    A person can go without water for three days.
grow under    go out of business    The restaurant went under after it lost its liquor license.
grow up    mature    Your brother needs to grow up and start thinking about his future.

hand * back +    return    Is the teacher going to hand back our tests today?
hand * down +    pronounce formally    The president is going to hand his decision down on health care tonight.
hand * down +     give as an inheritance    When my clothes got too small for me as a child, I handed them down to my sister.
hand * in +    submit    I have to hand in an offer by March 12.
hand * out +    distribute    We should hand the concert fliers out at school.
hand * over +    relinquish control of    Hand your car keys over. You're too drunk to drive.
hang around +    stay in a place for fun ( inf.)    Maria and Salvador usually hang around the beach after school.
hang around    stay in a place for fun    Those guys just hang around all day.
hang * up +    suspend (clothes on a hanger)    You can hang your jacket up in the front closet.
hang up     put down the telephone receiver    Don't hang up. I'm going to change phones.
hang out +    stay in a place for fun (inf.)    Let's go hang out at the mall tonight.
hang out    stay in a place for fun    What are you doing? - - I'm just hanging out.
have * on +    wear    Do you have your hiking boots on?
have * over    invite guests to your home    Why don't we have Mr. and Mrs. Jones over for dinner tonight.
hear from +    receive news from (a letter, an e-mail)    Have you heard from Steve lately?
hear of +    know about something or somebody    Have you heard of chocolate covered ants?
hit on +    find on accident    I hit on the idea while watching the Simpsons show.
hit on +    flirt with    Jay's friend Marc was trying to hit on my sister last night.
hold * back +    restrain    The police held the demonstrators back while the politicians entered the building.
hold back    not allow to advance in school    The teacher held Frank back a year, so he couldn't enter fifth grade.
hold * off +    restrain    Mr. Johnson held the dog off while we crossed the yard.
hold off on +    delay    We should hold off on making dinner until your parents arrive.
hold on    grasp tightly     Hold on tight! The roller coaster is about to take off.
hold on    tell someone to wait on the telephone    Hold on a minute. I'll get Carol.
hold on to +    grasp tightly    Make sure you hold on to the hand rail as you walk down the stairs.
hold out    not give in, continue to resist    Stop holding out and tell us where you found all of these old records.
hold out against +    not give in, resist    They held out against enemy attack.
hold * up +    delay (a flight, traffic);    The accident held traffic up for an hour.
hold * up +     rob (a bank, a person) with a weapon    Five men held the bank up yesterday.
hook * up +     make the electrical connections required for a machine or information service    Can you hook up the fax machine for me?

iron * out    eliminate    We need to have a meeting this week in order to iron out the distribution problems.

jack up +    to raise    We need to jack up the car before we change the tire.
joke around    to be humorous    Mike is always joking around at work.
jump in     enter a conversation    Feel free to jump in at any moment while we are talking.
jump to +    make a quick, poorly thought out decision    You shouldn't jump to conclusions.

keep * around    have handy, have accessible    I always keep a dictionary around to translate new words.
keep at +    not give up (an activity), to persevere    You should keep at your studies.
keep * away    prevent access to, hold back    Keep the kids away from the cookies.
keep * back    maintain a safe distance, cause to maintain a safe distance    Keep back! The burning building is about to collapse.
keep * down    not vomit, not throw up, keep in one's stomach    If I ate that, I down know if I could keep it down.
keep * in    keep in a particular place, have something in a specific location    When I am not using it, I keep my passport in this drawer.
keep * off    prevent from stepping or climbing on to something    Keep the cat off the couch.
keep on    continue    He kept on talking after everybody asked him to stop.
keep * out    prevent from entering    Keep the dog out of the garden; he keeps digging up the flowers.
keep * over    cover something with, put something above    I keep a tarp over my bicycle at night to prevent it from getting wet.
keep to +    continue, persist in (an activity)    Everybody said she would never finish the puzzle, but she kept to it until it was done.
keep up    stay on the required schedule    You have to keep up if you want to work here.
keep * up +    continue     You are doing a great job! Keep it up.
keep up with +    stay on schedule with (a person, the workload, homework)    I have so much reading that I can't keep up with the writing exercises.
kick back    sit or lie back (to relax)     After work, I like to kick back in front of the TV and relax.
kick in    begin taking effect     The medicine takes one hour to kick in.

lay  away +    save for the future    Why don't you lay away your wedding outfit?
lay down +    establish (laws, rules)    Lori lays down the law in her class. English only!
lay in on +    scold or criticize severely    My mom really laid in on me when I got home at 4:00 in the morning last night.
lay into +    scold or criticize severely    I saw Reto's mom lay into him when he came home late last night.
lay * off +    suspend someone from a job (during a slow period)    The company was losing money, so they had to lay off 100 workers.
lay * out +    arrange    Why don't we lay the pieces of the table out before we put it together.
leave * out +    not include, omit    Why did your parents leave you out of their vacation plans?
let * down    disappoint    I felt let down when I didn't receive a birthday card from my sister.
let * down    lengthen (pants in sewing)    My uncle is a tailor, so he can let your pants down.
let * out    release     I am happy my brother was let out of prison early.
let * out    make bigger (in sewing)    I need to let out this skirt because I have gained weight.
let up    weaken in intensity    I told her NO a thousand times, but she won't let up.
lie down    rest, recline     I need to lie down before we go out tonight.
lie down on +    rest, recline ( on a couch, bed)    I'm going to lie down on the sofa for a while.
lie with +    be decided by    Whether or not you can go to the party lies with your father.
light * up +    illuminate    Let's get some candles to light this room up.
light up +    to smoke    Do you have to light up another cigarette? I thought you were trying to cut down.
live * down +    live in a way that a shameful or embarrassing event is forgotten    Jose will never live down singing that song at the karaoke bar.
live on +    survive from    I could live on bread and cheese.
live up to +    keep a standard     It would be hard to live up to her parent's expectations.  They are so demanding.
look after +    take care of (a child, a house, a pet)    When my sister goes on vacation, I look after her dog.
look back on +    to remember nostalgically    When I look back on my childhood, I often feel angry.
look down on +    see as inferior    She's so conceited. She looks down on everybody else.
look for +    to seek or search for    I'm looking for my keys. Have you seen them?
look forward to +    anticipate with pleasure    I am looking forward to traveling to New York next year.
look into +    investigate    The police are looking into the murder.
look on    observe as a spectator    Everybody just looked on as the two men fought.
look out    be careful, pay attention, heed a certain danger    Look out, there's a black widow spider on the wall.
look * over +    examine, review    When I'm camping, I look my shoes over before I put them on.
look * up +    search for (in a dictionary)     I takes time to look up new vocabulary words.
look * up +    locate and visit    If you ever travel to California, you should look me up.
look up to +    respect, admire someone    He looks up to his father.

make * out    decipher    I can't make out your handwriting. What does this say?
make * out +    write a check or other document    Who should I make this check out to? 
make out    succeed    He really made out in the stock market last year.
make out    progress    How is your son making out in his new job?
make out    kiss passionately    I saw Benno and Isabelle making out in the movie theater last night!
make out with +     kiss someone passionately    Did you make out with Sally?
make * over    do again    The teacher made me do my homework over.
make * up +    invent ( a story)    Don't believe anything she says. She always makes things up.
make * up +    complete what was missed    Fortunately, my professor let me make up the exam I missed yesterday.
make * up +    put on cosmetics    I takes me 10 minutes to make my face up.
make up    reconcile    You two have been friends for so long that I think you should make up.
make up for +    compensate for    Allen made up for being late by getting me flowers.
mix * up +    confuse    I sometimes mix the verb tenses up.
mix * up +    blend    We need to mix up these different kinds of nuts before we put them in a bowl.
mix * up +    make lively (a party)    Let's mix up this party with a little disco music.

name * after +    name a child using another family member's name    I was named after my grandfather.
nod off    fall asleep    The movie was so boring that I nodded off before it was finished.
nose around +    sneak around    I hate it when my mother noses around my room.

occur to +    pop into one's mind, come to one's mind    It didn't occur to us that we had left the iron on.
open up    share feelings    I'm  glad that John feels comfortable enough around me to open up.
out to + verb    try to    She is out to get revenge now that her husband left her for another woman.

pan out    be successful, turn out well    The trip to Vegas didn't pan out.
pass away    die    After battling cancer for several years, he finally passed away at the age of 87.
pass * off +    try to convince someone that something is real    He tried to pass the fake watch off as a real Rolex.
pass * on +    transmit    Please pass this message on to your co-workers.
pass on +    not accept (an invitation to eat or do something)    Jennifer passed on the invitation to join us for dinner.
pass on    die    I am afraid Professor Johnson has passed on.
pass * out +    distribute    We need to pass out these flyers for the concert tomorrow.
pass out    become unconscious    He passed out because the room was too hot.
pass * up +    not take advantage (of an opportunity)    I can't believe she passed up the opportunity to study in Rome.
pay * back +    repay    If I loan you money, will you pay me back.
pay * off +    complete payment on a debt    It took me ten years to pay off my credit card debt.
pay * off +    to bribe    Don't try to pay the police officer off if you get pulled over for speeding.
pick on +    to tease, bully    She keeps picking on me! Make her stop.
pick * out +    choose    Diane picked out a lovely dress for the dance.
pick * up +    to lift an object with the hands    Keep your back straight when you lift the TV up.
pick * up +    come and get someone in a car    What time are you going to pick me up. 
pick * up +    learn something without effort    It's possible to pick up enough English in two weeks to get by on your trip to Los Angeles.
pick * up +    try to initiate a relationship with someone (often in a bar)    Some weird guy tried to pick Patricia up at the bar.
pick up    grow, increase (inf.)    Business is really picking up this quarter.
play * down +    make less important (inf.)    The President played down his affair with the intern.
play * up    highlight something (inf.)    She played up her part in the new movie, but it was actually a very small role.
play up to +    flatter someone for your personal advantage    She has been playing up to the boss because she wants a promotion.
point * out +    indicate    I'd like to point out that figures in column two might be outdated.
pull down    earn    He pulls down about $300,000 a year.
pull in    park (a vehicle)    Mark pulled in too quickly and crashed into the wall.
pull out    depart (a vehicle)    Our train pulls out at 8:00, so don't be late.
pull through    barely survive    I didn't think she was going to make it, but she pulled through in the end.
put * across +    communicate (an idea or suggestion) clearly so that it is understood    I thought Ms. Smith put her ideas across rather clearly in the meeting.
put * away +    return to the proper place of storage    I told you kids to put your toys away.
put * down +    insult, say bad things about    She always puts down people who don't share her opinions.
put in +    officially submit a request (in the armed forces or public services)    He put in for a transfer to the division in Los Angeles.
put * off +    postpone    Don't put off your work - do it now!
put * on +    wear    Make sure you put on a sweater before you go outside.
put * on +    deceive    I didn't believe a thing he said. I think he was putting me on.
put * out +    extinguish (a fire)    Don't use water to put out a grease fire.
put * out +    inconvenience someone    I don't want to put you out, but could you pick me up at the airport.
put out +    spend (usually used with unreasonably large sums of money)    I can't put out that much money each month.
put * up    have a guest stay in your house for a short time    Can you put me up while I'm in town.
put up with +    tolerate    Sandy will not put up with smoking in her house. 

quiet * down +    be quiet, or cause to be quiet    The neighbors told us to quiet down last night or they would call the police.

read up on +    research a topic for a reason    I need to read up on the company before I go on the job interview.
ring * up    telephone    Jack rung me up last night at 3:00 in the morning.
rule * out +    eliminate    I wouldn't rule out the possibility of moving to another country if I get a good job offer.
run across +    find or meet unexpectedly    I ran across some old photos while I was cleaning my house.
run against +    compete in an election    Gore ran against Bush in the 2000 elections in the U.S.A.
run away    leave home permanently before you are a legal adult    The child ran away because her parents beat her.
run away from +    escape from    The child ran away from its parents.
run * down    trace    Have you run down those phone numbers I asked for last week?
run * down    criticize    My boss runs everyone down.
run * down    hit with a car    My dog was run down by a bus.
run down    loose power, be very tired    You need to wind your watch so it doesn't run down.
run for +    campaign for a government position    Gore is running for president of the U.S.A.
run into +    meet unexpectedly    I ran into my English teacher at the movies last night. She's so nice!
run * off +    make leave    The new government is trying to run the drug traffickers off.
run * off    reproduce (photocopies)    Would you mind running off 10 copies of this document for me?
run off    leave quickly    Why did you run off after the party?
run off    waste water    You shouldn't swim where the sewage runs off into the ocean.
run out of +    not have any more of something    We ran out of milk this morning, so we need to go to the store.

save * up +    accumulate (money)    I hope I will be able to save up enough money to go to school.
see about +    arrange or consider something    My dad said he was going to see about buying me a car.
see * off     say good-bye to someone at the beginning of their trip (at the airport, train station)    Did you see your sister off at the train station?
see to +     make sure something happens, arrange    I'll see to it that Mr. Ramirez gets your message.
see * through    finish something despite difficulties    Are you going to be able to see your studies through now that you have a baby?
sell * out    tell on someone    My partner in crime sold me out for a reduced jail sentence.
set * up     arrange a relationship    My mom set me up with her friend's son.
set * up    falsely incriminate a person    I don't think he killed those men. Somebody set him up.
set up +    arrange (an appointment, a meeting,etc.)    I set up an appointment with my doctor at 3:30 this afternoon.
settle on +    make a decision after a period of time    I settled on the job at the oil company.
settle up    pay one's debts    We need to settle up before you move.
show * off +    show to everybody with a lot of pride    He always shows off his new things.
show off    boast, draw attention to oneself    Young boys show off in order to impress girls.
show * up    make someone seem inferior    He's always trying to show up his co-workers in order to get ahead.
show up    arrive without previous notice    I hadn't seen my cousin for years, and all of a sudden, he showed up at my workplace yesterday!
shut * off    stop from functioning    If you don't pay your electric bill, your power is going to get shut off.
shut * up    make quiet    Would someone shut him up! He's talking so loudly that we're going to get in trouble.
slow * down +    make move more slowly    Because Mary's level in English is lower than the rest of the students, she slows the class down.
slow * up +    make move more slowly    Because Mary's level in English is lower than the rest of the students, she slows the class up.
spell * out +    to explain something in a detailed way so that the meaning is clearly understood    He's so stupid that you have to spell everything our for him.
stand by    wait     I need you to stand by and answer the phone when my broker calls.
stand for +    represent    SCUBA stands for "self contained underwater breathing apparatus."
stand for +    tolerate    I won't stand for people criticizing me.
stand out    be very noticeable    Soledad is so beautiful! She really stands out in a crowd.
stand * up    not arrive to a date or an appointment (inf.)    I arranged to meet Joe at the library at 8:00, but he stood me up. I hope he has a good excuse.
stand up for +    defend (something one believes in)    Every individual must stand up for what they believe in.
stand up to +    defend oneself against someone or something    I think you should stand up to your older brother and tell him to stop pushing you around.
stay over    spend the night at a person's house    It takes you so long to take the bus home, so why don't you just stay over?
stick it to +    severely criticize a person (inf.)    My boss really stuck it to me when I arrived late to work for the third time this week.
stick to +    persevere, keep trying    Even though English is a hard language to master, you must stick to it!
stick up for +    defend oneself or opinions    Joseph joined the army because he believes he must stick up for his country.

take after +    resemble a parent or relative    I take after my father. Who do you take after?
take * away +    remove, seize or capture    The soldiers took the captives away.
take * back +    retract something you said    I demand that you take back what you said.
take * back +    return an item to a store    The dress my grandmother bought for me didn't fit, so I took it back and exchanged it for a pair of pants.
take * down +    write down what is said    Would you mind taking down my messages while I am on vacation?
take * down +    remove (from a high place)    The city government made the shop take down their bright, neon sign.
take * for    consider, view as    Do you take me for an idiot?
take * in +    learning    Are you taking in all of these phrasal verbs?
take * in +    deceive a person    He was taken in by the con artist.
take * in +    make smaller when sewing    I lost weight, so I need to take some of my skirts to the tailor to have them taken in.
take * off    when a plane or rocket leaves the ground    My stomach felt funny when the plane took off.
take * off +    remove    In many cultures, it is appropriate to take off your shoes when entering a house.
take * off +    leave work or school for a period of time    I was sick last week, so I took a few days off of work.
take off    leave    We took off after dinner.
take on +    accept (responsibilities, work)    She has taken on too much responsibility in this project.
take * over +    take control of    Who is going to take over the family business when Aretha's father dies?
take over    take control of    If the President is assassinated, the Vice-president will take over.
take * out +    accompany a person on a date (for dinner, the movies)    I can't meet you tonight because I am taking Fernanda out to dinner.
take * up +    begin a new hobby    Have you taken up any new hobbies since you moved here?
take * up +    discuss (at a later date)    We should take this issue up in the meeting tomorrow.
take * up +    shorten a garment when sewing    This dress is too long, I am going to take it up.
take up +    occupy space    This couch takes up too much space in the living room.
talk back    respond in an impolite way to an adult    Don't talk back!
talk back to +    respond in an impolite way to an adult    Children should not talk back to their parents.
talk * over +    discuss    I hope my parents talk their relationship problems over before they get divorced.
tear * down +    destroy    The county decided to tear down the dilapidated school and build a new one.
tear * up +    tear or rip into small pieces    I always tear up my personal papers before I throw them out.
tell * off +    criticize a person severely, reprimand (inf.)    Carolina told me off when she found out I was gossiping about her date with Martin.
tell on +    report a crime to the police or bad behavior to a parent     Every time I did something wrong when I was a child, my sister would tell on me.
think * over +    consider    Think over the offer before you sign the contract.
think * through +     consider carefully    You need to think this through carefully before you make a decision.
think * up +    create or invent a false story    I need to think up an excuse for not going to her party.
throw * away +    discard    Don't throw away those bottles; we can recycle them.
throw * out +    discard    I asked him not to throw out the Sunday newspaper because I wanted to save an article.
throw * out +    remove by force from (a room, school, a house, etc.)    Mary threw out her roommate because she stopped paying rent.
throw up    vomit    If you drink too much alcohol, you might throw up.
tie * up +    tie securely    When we dock, make sure you tie the boat up.
tire * out    cause someone to be very tired    Speaking English all day tires me out.
touch on +    talk about for a short time    The presidential candidates touched on the subject of health care during the debates.
touch * up    make the final improvements    We didn't paint the whole kitchen, we just touched up the cabinets.
try * on +    put on to make sure a piece of clothing fits    Try on the pants before you buy them.
try * out    test    Try out this massage chair - it feels great!
turn * away    refuse to deal with or give service    They turned us away at the border because we didn't have visas.
turn * around    change or reverse direction    Turn the car around and go back home.
turn * down +    refuse an offer; reject an application    She turned down the new job in New York, because she didn't want to move.
turn * down +    lower the volume or intensity of a TV, radio, or other machine    I'm studying! Please turn down the TV.
turn * in    submit    You need to turn your essays in next week.
turn in    go to bed (inf.)    It's getting late. I think it is about time to turn in.
turn into +     become something different, transform    When she kissed the frog, it turned into a handsome prince.
turn * off +    stop the function of (a stove, a water faucet, a car, etc.)    Don't forget to turn off the iron before you leave the house.
turn on +    attack unexpectedly    The pit bull suddenly turned on the small child.
turn * on    cause to be excited sexually     Scientists have discovered that the smell of cinnamon turns many people on.
turn * on +    start the function of a TV, a radio, a machine    Turn on the TV. The baseball game starts in a few minutes.
turn * out    produce     The weavers can turn out two or three rugs a month.
turn * out    switch off a light    Turn out the light before you go to bed.
turn out    audience members to a function    Over 100,000 people turned out for the concert.
turn out    end up being    She turned out to be the murderer after all.
turn * over    give to authorities (said of evidence or stolen / lost property)    They turned the wallet over to the police.
turn * up +    increase the volume or intensity of a TV, radio, or other machine    Turn up the TV. I can't hear what they're saying.
turn up    find unexpectedly    My keys turned up in the bedroom.

use * up    use all of something    I used up all of the soap, so we need to buy some more.

veer away from +    stay away from, avoid    I veer away from the same old summer blockbuster films.

wait on +    serve, service (a table)    Each waitress waits on three different tables in the restaurant.
wait up    not sleep because you are waiting for something or someone    Don't wait up.
wait up for +    not sleep because you are waiting for someone or something    Let's wait up for Mary to see how her date went.
wake * up +    awaken someone    The car alarm woke me up at 6:00 in the morning.
wake up    awaken    Wake up. It's time to get ready for work.
wash up    clean oneself    Make sure you wash up before dinner.
wash * up +    clean    If we work together, we can wash the kitchen up in a few minutes.
watch out    be careful    Watch out - there's a rattlesnake!
watch out for +    be careful of    Watch out for snakes while you are hiking in the desert.
wear off    disappear after a period of time    The affects of the medicine will wear off after a few hours.
wear * out    use until something is not useable anymore    If you wear the same shoes everyday, you'll wear them out.
wear * out    cause to be very tired    Her three kids wore me out.
wind up +    finish (inf.)    If he doesn't get his act together, he is going to wind up in jail.
wind * up +    tighten the spring of a watch or similar machine    He wound up the toy dog and set it on the floor.
wind * up +    cause an animal or a child to behave wildly    The kids always get wound up when Uncle Henry comes over.
wipe * out +    massacre or destroy    The tidal wave wiped out the small fishing village.
wipe * out     cause to be very tired    After surfing all day, I was completely wiped out.
work * out +    solve    I hope you two can work out your problems.
work out    exercise    I work out three times a week at the fitness center.
work out    be successful    I am glad your new catering business is working out.
write * down +    record    Write down the directions so you don't forget them.
write * out +    write down every word or letter    He wrote out the lyrics so I could understand what the singer was saying.
write * up +    prepare a report    He wrote up a business proposal in order to get a loan.

yak on    to continue talking in an annoying way ("on" can be repeated for emphasis)    He just yakked on and on and on.
yak on about +    to continue talking in an annoying way about something ("on" can be repeated for emphasis)    She just yakked on and on about her husband's new job.
yammer on    to talk in an annoying way or complain ("on" can be repeated for emphasis)    They yammered on and on and on.
yammer on about +    to talk in an annoying way about something or complain about ("on" can be repeated for emphasis)    He just yammered on and on about how horrible the waiter was.

zero in on +    discover, pinpoint    I think I have zeroed in on what has been causing the problem.
zip around +    move quickly from place to place    I zipped around town after work today.
zone out    stop paying attention    He zoned out during class.
zone out    fall asleep    Jill was so exhausted after taking the TOEFL test that she zonked out before dinner.
zoom in    focus    You need a telephoto lens to zoom in.
zoom in on +    focus on something, pinpoint    She zoomed in on his face while taking the picture.

 

 

 
 

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES  СОСЛАГАТЕЛЬНОЕ НАКЛОНЕНИЕ

 

 

Сослагательное наклонение показывает, что говорящий расcмат­ривает действие не как реальный факт, а как предполагаемое или же­лательное.

В русском языке имеется только одна форма сослагательного наклоне­ния — сочетание формы глагола прошедшего времени с частицей бы (пошел бы, сделал бы и т.д.). В английском языке сослагательное наклоне­ние выражается различными формами. Их можно разделить на группы:

 

0 Conditional:

If present simple.....present simple

Example:

(If the weather is nice, she walks to work.)

 

If past simple.....past simple

Example:

(If the weather was nice, she often walked to work.  Now, she usually drives.)

 

1st Conditional:

If present simple.....future simple

Example:

(If I go to my friend's house for dinner tonight, I will take a bottle of wine or some flowers)

 

 

2nd Conditional:

If past simple.....would+verb

Example:

(If I were you I would do it differently)

 

3rd Conditional:

if past perfect....would + have + past participle

Example:

(If I had owned a car, I would have driven to work.  But I didn't own one, so I took the bus.)  

 

 

Past real conditional   = 0 conditional

Past unreal conditional = 3rd conditional

 

Present real conditional = 0 conditional

Present unreal conditional = 2nd conditional

 

Future real conditional = 1st conditional

Future unreal conditional  = 2nd conditional

 

 

 

Past Conditionals

 

 

 

Past Real Conditional

 

FORM

 

[If / When ... Simple Past ..., ... Simple Past ...]

 

[... Simple Past... if / when ... Simple Past ...]

 

USE

 

The Past Real Conditional describes what you used to do in particular real-life situations. It suggests that your habits have changed and you do not usually do these things today.

 

Examples:

If I went to a friend's house for dinner, I usually took a bottle of wine or some flowers. I don't do that anymore.

When I had a day off from work, I often went to the beach. Now, I never get time off.

If the weather was nice, she often walked to work. Now, she usually drives.

Jerry always helped me with my homework when he had time. But he doesn't do that anymore.

A: What did you usually do when it rained?

B: I usually stayed at home.

IMPORTANT Used to

 

The form "used to" expresses the idea that something was an old habit that stopped in the past. This form is commonly used in Past Real Conditional sentences to emphasize that something was a habit. The examples below have the same meaning as the examples above.

 

Examples:

 

If I went to a friend's house for dinner, I used to take a bottle of wine or some flowers. I don't do that anymore.

When I had a day off from work, I used to go to the beach. Now, I never get time off.

If the weather was nice, she used to walk to work. Now, she usually drives.

Jerry used to help me with my homework when he had time. But he doesn't do that anymore.

A: What did you usually do when it rained?

B: I used to stay at home.

IMPORTANT If / When

 

Both "if" and "when" are used in the Past Real Conditional. Using "if" suggests that something happened less frequently. Using "when" suggests that something happened regularly.

 

Examples:

 

When I had a day off from work, I usually went to the beach.

I regularly had days off from work.

If I had a day off from work, I usually went to the beach.

I rarely had days off from work.

Past Unreal Conditional

 

FORM

 

[If ... Past Perfect ..., ... would have + past participle ... ]

 

[... would have + past participle ... if ... Past Perfect ...]

 

USE

 

The Past Unreal Conditional is used to talk about imaginary situations in the past. You can describe what you would have done differently or how something could have happened differently if circumstances had been different.

 

Examples:

 

If I had owned a car, I would have driven to work. But I didn't own one, so I took the bus.

She would have traveled around the world if she had had more money. But she didn't have much money, so she never traveled.

I would have read more as a child if I hadn't watched so much TV. Unfortunately, I did watch a lot of TV, so I never read for entertainment.

Mary would have gotten the job and moved to Japan if she had studied Japanese in school instead of French.

If Jack had worked harder, he would have earned more money. Unfortunately, he was lazy and he didn't earn much.

A: What would you have done if you had won the lottery last week?

B: I would have bought a house.

A: What city would you have chosen if you had decided to move to the United States?

B: I would have chosen Seattle.

IMPORTANT Only use "If"

 

Only the word "if" is used with the Past Unreal Conditional because you are discussing imaginary situations. "When" cannot be used.

 

Examples:

 

I would have bought that computer when it had been cheaper. Not Correct

I would have bought that computer if it had been cheaper. Correct

EXCEPTION Conditional with Modal Verbs

 

There are some special conditional forms for modal verbs in English:

 

would have + can = could have

 

would have + shall = should have

 

would have + may = might have

 

The words "can," "shall" and "may" cannot be used with "would have." Instead, they must be used in these special forms.

 

Examples:

 

If I had gone to Egypt, I could have learned Arabic.

If she had had time, she might have gone to the party.

The words "could," should," "might" and "ought to" include Conditional, so you cannot combine them with "would have."

 

Examples:

 

If I had had more time, I could have exercised after work.

If he had invited you, you might have gone.

 

 

Present Conditionals

 

 

 

Present Real Conditional

 

FORM

 

[If / When ... Simple Present ..., ... Simple Present ...]

 

[... Simple Present ... if / when ... Simple Present ...]

 

USE

 

The Present Real Conditional is used to talk about what you normally do in real-life situations.

 

Examples:

 

If I go to a friend's house for dinner, I usually take a bottle of wine or some flowers.

When I have a day off from work, I often go to the beach.

If the weather is nice, she walks to work.

Jerry helps me with my homework when he has time.

I read if there is nothing on TV.

A: What do you do when it rains?

B: I stay at home.

A: Where do you stay if you go to Sydney?

B: I stay with my friends near the harbor.

IMPORTANT If / When

 

Both "if" and "when" are used in the Present Real Conditional. Using "if" suggests that something happens less frequently. Using "when" suggests that something happens regularly.

 

Examples:

 

When I have a day off from work, I usually go to the beach.

I regularly have days off from work.

If I have a day off from work, I usually go to the beach.

I rarely have days off from work.

Present Unreal Conditional

 

FORM

 

[If ... Simple Past ..., ... would + verb ...]

 

[... would + verb ... if ... Simple Past ...]

 

USE

 

The Present Unreal Conditional is used to talk about what you would generally do in imaginary situations.

 

Examples:

 

If I owned a car, I would drive to work. But I don't own a car.

She would travel around the world if she had more money. But she doesn't have much money.

I would read more if I didn't watch so much TV.

Mary would move to Japan if she spoke Japanese.

If they worked harder, they would earn more money.

A: What would you do if you won the lottery?

B: I would buy a house.

A: Where would you live if you moved to the U.S.?

B: I would live in Seattle.

EXCEPTION If I were ...

 

In the Present Unreal Conditional, the form "was" is not considered grammatically correct. In written English or in testing situations, you should always use "were." However, in everyday conversation, "was" is often used.

 

Examples:

 

If he were French, he would live in Paris.

If she were rich, she would buy a yacht.

I would play basketball if I were taller.

I would buy that computer if it were cheaper.

I would buy that computer if it was cheaper. Not Correct (But often said in conversation.)

IMPORTANT Only use "If"

 

Only the word "if" is used with the Present Unreal Conditional because you are discussing imaginary situations. "When" cannot be used.

Examples:

 

I would buy that computer when it were cheaper. Not Correct

I would buy that computer if it were cheaper. Correct

EXCEPTION Conditional with Modal Verbs

 

There are some special conditional forms for modal verbs in English:

 

would + can = could

 

would + shall = should

 

would + may = might

 

The words "can," "shall" and "may" cannot be used with "would." Instead, they must be used in these special forms.

 

Examples:

 

If I went to Egypt, I would can learn Arabic. Not Correct

If I went to Egypt, I could learn Arabic. Correct

If she had time, she would may go to the party. Not Correct

If she had time, she might go to the party. Correct

The words "could," should," "might" and "ought to" include conditional, so you cannot combine them with "would."

 

Examples:

 

If I had more time, I would could exercise after work. Not Correct

If I had more time, I could exercise after work. Correct

If he invited you, you really would should go. Not Correct

If he invited you, you really should go. Correct

 

 

Future Conditionals

 

 

 

Future Real Conditional

 

FORM

 

[If / When ... Simple Present ..., ... Simple Future ...]

 

[... Simple Future ... if / when ... Simple Present ...]

 

Notice that there is no future in the if- or when-clause.

 

USE

 

The Future Real Conditional describes what you think you will do in a specific situation in the future. It is different from other Real Conditional forms because, unlike the present or the past, you do not know what will happen in the future. Although this form is called "real", you are usually imagining or guessing about the future. It is called "real" because it is still possible that the action might occur in the future. Carefully study the following examples and compare them to the Future Unreal Conditional examples further down the page.

 

Examples:

 

If I go to my friend's house for dinner tonight, I will take a bottle of wine or some flowers.

I am still not sure if I will go to his house or not.

When I have a day off from work, I am going to go to the beach.

I have to wait until I have a day off.

If the weather is nice, she is going to walk to work.

It depends on the weather.

Jerry will help me with my homework when he has time.

I have to wait until he has time.

I am going to read if there is nothing on TV.

It depends on the TV schedule.

A: What are you going to do if it rains?

B: I am going to stay at home.

IMPORTANT If / When

 

Both "if" and "when" are used in the Future Real Conditional, but the use is different from other Real Conditional forms. In the Future Real Conditional, "if" suggests that you do not know if something will happen or not. "When" suggests that something will definitely happen at some point; we are simply waiting for it to occur. Notice also that the Simple Future is not used in if-clauses or when-clauses.

 

Examples:

 

When you call me, I will give you the address.

You are going to call me later, and at that time, I will give you the address.

If you call me, I will give you the address.

If you want the address, you can call me.

Future Unreal Conditional

 

FORM 1 (Most Common Form)

 

[If ... Simple Past ..., ... would + verb ...]

 

[... would + verb ... if ... Simple Past ...]

 

Notice that this form looks the same as Present Unreal Conditional.

 

USE

 

The Future Unreal Conditional is used to talk about imaginary situations in the future. It is not as common as the Future Real Conditional because English speakers often leave open the possibility that anything MIGHT happen in the future. It is only used when a speaker needs to emphasize that something is impossible. Because this form looks like Present Unreal Conditional, many native speakers prefer Form 2 described below.

 

Examples:

 

If I had a day off from work next week, I would go to the beach.

I don't have a day off from work.

I am busy next week. If I had time, I would come to your party.

I can't come.

Jerry would help me with my homework tomorrow if he didn't have to work.

He does have to work tomorrow.

FORM 2

 

[If ... were + present participle ..., ... would be + present participle ...]

 

[... would be + present participle ... if ... were + present participle ...]

 

USE

 

Form 2 of the Future Unreal Conditional is also used to talk about imaginary situations in the future. Native speakers often prefer this form over Form 1 to emphasize that the conditional form is in the future rather than the present. Also notice in the examples below that this form can be used in the if-clause, the result, or both parts of the sentence.

 

Examples:

 

If I were going to Fiji next week, I would be taking my scuba diving gear with me. In if-clause and result

I am not going to go to Fiji and I am not going to take my scuba gear with me.

If I were not visiting my grandmother tomorrow, I would help you study. In if-clause

I am going to visit my grandmother tomorrow.

I am busy next week. If I had time, I would be coming to your party. In result

I am not going to come to your party.

FORM 3

 

[If ... were going to + verb ..., ... would be + present participle ...]

 

[... would be + present participle ... if ... were going to + verb ...]

 

USE

 

Form 3 of the Future Unreal Conditional is a variation of Form 2 which is also used to talk about imaginary situations in the future. Notice that this form is only different from Form 2 in the if-clause. Native speakers use Form 3 to emphasize that the conditional form is a plan or prediction in the same way "be going to" is used to indicate a plan or prediction.

 

Examples:

 

If I were going to go to Fiji next week, I would be taking my scuba diving gear with me. 

I am not going to go to Fiji and I am not going to take my scuba gear with me.

If I were not going to visit my grandmother tomorrow, I would help you study.

I am going to visit my grandmother tomorrow.

IMPORTANT Only use "If"

 

Only the word "if" is used with the Past Unreal Conditional because you are discussing imaginary situations. "When" cannot be used.

 

Examples:

 

I would buy that computer tomorrow when it were cheaper. Not Correct

I would buy that computer tomorrow if it were cheaper. Correct

EXCEPTION Conditional with Modal Verbs

 

There are some special conditional forms for modal verbs in English:

 

would + can = could

 

would + shall = should

 

would + may = might

 

The words "can," "shall" and "may" cannot be used with "would." Instead, they must be used in these special forms.

 

Examples:

 

If I went to Egypt next year, I would can learn Arabic. Unfortunately, that's not possible. Not Correct

If I went to Egypt next year, I could learn Arabic. Unfortunately, that's not possible. Correct

The words "could," should," "might" and "ought to" include conditional, so you cannot combine them with "would."

 

Examples:

 

If I didn't have to work tonight, I would could go to the fitness center. Not Correct

If I didn't have to work tonight, I could go to the fitness center. Correct

Future Real Conditional vs. Future Unreal Conditional

 

To help you understand the difference between the Future Real Conditional and the Future Unreal Conditional, compare the examples below:

 

Examples:

 

If you help me move tomorrow, I will buy you dinner. Future Real Conditional 

I don't know if you can help me.

If you helped me move tomorrow, I would buy you dinner. Future Unreal Conditional 

You can't help me, or you don't want to help me.

 

 

 

Were To

 

 

 

"Were to" in the Present

 

FORM

 

[If ... were to + verb ..., ...]

 

USE

 

"Were to" can be used in the present to emphasize that the conditional form is extremely unlikely or unthinkably horrible. Notice that this special form is only used in the if-clause.

 

Examples:

 

If she were to be rich, she would be horribly obnoxious.

It is very unlikely that she would be rich.

If I were to have no friends, who would I spend my time with?

Having no friends is a horrible thought.

If Nathan were to be my boss, this job would be intolerable.

Nathan's being my boss is a horrible concept.

"Were to" in the Future

 

FORM

 

[If ... were to + verb ..., ...]

 

USE

 

"Were to" can be used in the future to emphasize that the conditional form is extremely unlikely or unthinkably horrible. Notice that this special form is only used in the if-clause.

 

Examples:

 

If I were to lose my job next year, I would probably not find a new one quickly.

Loosing my job would be terrible.

If he were to fail his driving test tomorrow, he would have to take it again.

He is not likely to fail his driving test.

If Sarah were to show up late to the birthday party, it would ruin the surprise.

Sarah will surely come on time.

"Were to" in the Past

 

FORM

 

[If ... were to have + past participle ..., ...]

 

USE

 

"Were to" can be used in the past to emphasize that the conditional form is extremely unlikely or unthinkably horrible. Notice that this special form is only used in the if-clause.

 

Examples:

 

If the fire were to have destroyed the building, it would have been a tragic cultural loss.

The thought of such a loss is too horrible to consider.

If the dam were to have burst, the entire town would have been destroyed.

Such destruction is too horrible to consider.

If Sarah were to have failed the final test, she would have lost her scholarship.

She is an excellent student, and it is very unlikely that she would have failed the test.

 

 

Continuous Conditionals

 

 

 

Those of you who have studied Englishpage.com's Verb Tense Tutorial should be familiar with continuous verb tenses such as Present Continuous, Past Continuous, Future Continuous, Present Perfect Continuous, Past Perfect Continuous, and Future Perfect Continuous. The Verb Tense Tutorial gives you all the information you need to create continuous Real Conditional sentences. But many English learners are not aware of the fact that we can use continuousness in imaginary situations as well. Study the examples below to learn how to create continuous Unreal Conditional sentences that will make you sound like a native speaker.

Present Unreal Conditional + Continuous

 

FORM

 

If-clause: [were + present participle]

 

Result: [would be + present participle]

 

USE

 

Present Unreal Conditional + Continuous is used to discuss imaginary situations which could be happening at this very moment.

 

Examples in the if-clause:

 

If the sun were shining, I would go to the beach.

Unfortunately, it is raining so I can't go.

If Sam were sitting here, we would be able to ask him the question ourselves.

But Sam is not sitting here. He is somewhere else.

We would be able to go sailing if the wind were blowing.

But there is no wind, so we can't go sailing.

Examples in the result:

 

If I were in Hawaii, I would be lying on the beach.

But I am not in Hawaii.

If my grandfather were here, he would be talking about the war.

But he is not here.

I would be rafting down the Colorado River right now if my leg weren't broken.

But my leg is broken, so I am not there.

Past Unreal Conditional + Continuous

 

FORM

 

If-clause: [had been + present participle]

 

Result: [would have been + present participle]

 

USE

 

Past Unreal Conditional + Continuous is used to discuss imaginary situations happening at a very specific time in the past or over a period of time in the past.

 

Examples in the if-clause:

 

If I had been talking to him when he said that, I would have punched him in the face.

But I wasn't talking to him when he said that.

If he had been standing near the house when the wall collapsed, it would have killed him.

Luckily, he moved away before the wall fell.

Examples in the result:

 

If you had gone to his house last night, he would have been sitting on his couch in front of the TV.

But you didn't go to his house, so you didn't see what he was doing.

If she had missed her train, he would have been waiting for her at the station for hours.

Luckily, she caught her train and he didn't have to wait.

NOTICE that the Past Unreal Conditional + Continuous can be used like the Past Continuous in imaginary situations to emphasize interruptions or parallel actions in the past.

Examples in the if-clause:

 

If James had been crossing the street when the car ran the red light, it would have hit him.

If Tom had been studying while Becky was making dinner, he would have finished his homework early and they could have gone to the movie.

Examples in the result:

 

If James hadn't stopped to tie his shoe, he would have been crossing the street when the car ran the red light.

If you had gone to their house last night, Bob would have been reading the newspaper, Nancy would have been talking on the phone and the kids would have been watching TV. They always do the same things.

NOTICE that Past Unreal Conditional + Continuous can also be used like Present Perfect Continuous or Past Perfect Continuous in imaginary situations to emphasize a duration of time.

 

Examples in the if-clause:

 

Scott said he had been studying Greek for more than five years. If he had been studying the language that long, I think he would have been able to interpret for us at the airport.

Sarah claimed she had been waiting in the rain for more than twenty minutes by the time we arrived, but she wasn't even wet. If she had been waiting that long, I think she would have been totally drenched by the time we arrived.

Examples in the result:

 

Terry's plane arrived ahead of schedule. If I hadn't decided to go to the airport early, she would have been waiting there for more than twenty minutes before I arrived.

At the travel agency yesterday, I waited for more than an hour for somebody to help me. Finally, I got up and left. If I hadn't decided to leave, I would have been sitting there forever.

Future Unreal Conditional + Continuous

 

FORM

 

If-clause: [were + present participle]

 

Result: [would be + present participle]

 

USE

 

Future Unreal Conditional + Continuous can be used like the Future Continuous in imaginary situations to emphasize interruptions or parallel actions in the future.

 

NOTICE The future form looks the same as the present form. The future is indicated with words such as "tomorrow," "next week" or "in a couple of days."

 

Examples in the if-clause:

 

If I were waiting there next week when he gets off the plane, he would be totally surprised.

But I will not be waiting there, so he won't be surprised.

If he were staying in that hotel next week while the conference is being held, he might be able to meet some of the key speakers and tell them about our new product.

I don't think he will be able to stay at the hotel, so he won't be able to meet anybody there.

Examples in the result:

 

If I were able to go to the train station tonight to meet Sandra, I would be standing on the platform waiting for her when she arrives.

I won't be able to go to the train station, so I will not be standing there when she arrives.

If you went over to Paul's house after work, he would probably be sitting there at his computer surfing the Internet.

But you won't go over.

 

 

Mixed Conditionals

 

Those of you who have been following the Conditional Tutorial should now be familiar with present, past and future conditional verb forms. Sometimes Unreal Conditional sentences are mixed. This means that the time in the if-clause is not the same as the time in the result. Study the examples below to learn how to mix conditional verb forms like a native speaker.

Verbs in green are in the Present Unreal Conditional.

Verbs in red are in the Past Unreal Conditional.

Verbs in purple are in the Future Unreal Conditional.

 

Mixed Conditional Patterns

PAST

PRESENT

 

Examples:

  • If I had won the lottery, I would be rich. But I didn't win the lottery in the past and I am not rich now.

  • If I had taken French in high school, I would have more job opportunities. But I didn't take French in high school and I don't have many job opportunities.

  • If she had been born in the United States, she wouldn't need a visa to work here. But she wasn't born in the United States and she does need a visa now to work here.

PAST

FUTURE

 

Examples:

  • If she had signed up for the ski trip last week, she would be joining us tomorrow. But she didn't sign up for the ski trip last week and she isn't going to join us tomorrow.

  • If Mark had gotten the job instead of Joe, he would be moving to Shanghai. But Mark didn't get the job and Mark is not going to move to Shanghai.

  • If Darren hadn't wasted his Christmas bonus gambling in Las Vegas, he would go to Mexico with us next month. But Darren wasted his Christmas bonus gambling in Las Vegas and he won't go to Mexico with us next month.

PRESENT

PAST

 

Examples:

  • If I were rich, I would have bought that Ferrari we saw yesterday. But I am not currently rich and that is why I didn't buy the Ferrari yesterday.

  • If Sam spoke Russian, he would have translated the letter for you. But Sam doesn't speak Russian and that is why he didn't translate the letter.

  • If I didn't have to work so much, I would have gone to the party last night. But I have to work a lot and that is why I didn't go to the party last night.

PRESENT

FUTURE

 

Examples:

  • If I didn't have so much vacation time, I wouldn't go with you on the cruise to Alaska next week. But I do have a lot of vacation time and I will go on the trip next week.

  • If Cindy were more creative, the company would send her to New York to work on the new advertising campaign. But Cindy is not creative and the company won't send her to New York to work on the new campaign.

  • If Dan weren't so nice, he wouldn't be tutoring you in math tonight. But Dan is nice and he is going to tutor you tonight.

FUTURE

PAST

 

Examples:

  • If I weren't going on my business trip next week, I would have accepted that new assignment at work. But I am going to go on a business trip next week, and that is why I didn't accept that new assignment at work.

  • If my parents weren't coming this weekend, I would have planned a nice trip just for the two of us to Napa Valley. But my parents are going to come this weekend, and that is why I didn't plan a trip for the two of us to Napa Valley.

  • If Donna weren't making us a big dinner tonight, I would have suggested that we go to that nice Italian restaurant. But she is going to make us a big dinner tonight, and that is why I didn't suggest that we go to that nice Italian restaurant.

FUTURE

PRESENT

 

Examples:

  • If I were going to that concert tonight, I would be very excited. But I am not going to go to that concert tonight and that is why I am not excited.

  • If Sandy were giving a speech tomorrow, she would be very nervous. But Sandy is not going to give a speech tomorrow and that is why she in not nervous.

  • If Seb didn't come with us to the desert, everyone would be very disappointed. But Seb will come with us to the desert and that is why everyone is so happy.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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